Galapagos Volcanic Formation
Galapagos Islands Volcanic Formation - The islands of the Galápagos archipelago are formed by volcanic processes and continue to form with frequent eruptions.  For example, Fernandina Island has had 14 eruptions in the last 37 years.

Galapagos Volcanic FormationThe hot spot is the origin of basalt lava which is born in the depths of the earth’s mangle where it ascends forming magma (melted rock) that reaches the surface of the planet giving rise to volcanoes.

According to the theory of tectonic plates, in the depths of the seas there is part of the surface of land that is not stable and it moves forming deposits of melted rock upon which the solid surface of the mantle forms a solid layer.

A constant friction process exists between the rigid zone and the soft one which breaks the external layer of the earth which forms tectonic plates.

The plate on which the Galápagos Islands are found is called the Nazca Plate and moves in the westerly-easterly direction.

Apparently the hot spots do not move in relation to the planet but the plates do.  Thus, it is possible to build up chains of volcanic material under the water and occasionally islands such as the peaks of chains.

This is how the Galápagos Islands originated.  The rocks that form the western party of Galápagos are very young (less than one million years old) but the chain extends from Galápagos to the edge of the Continent of South America (Carniege Chain).  It is 22 million years old.  These chains affect the movement of the underwater currents and the settling of sediments.
 
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